Fitness methods are like diets, there are plenty of them and all claim to be THE method!
This is why, in this article, I propose to introduce you to these sports approaches , some of which are fashionable, in order to find your way around.
So you can make your choice based on your fitness goal and your personality. The point is to retain good ideas with common sense and apply them to your own programs.
Indeed, all these methods are not necessarily suitable for beginners or for improving the physical condition of people over 40 ( get back in shape after 40)
It’s a term that everyone knows these days since the 80s (remember Véronique and Davina?). The definition of Larousse is quite short, but indicates the essential: ” A set of fitness activities including bodybuilding, stretching and cardio-training”.
Indeed, fitness, or physical fitness ( physical form ) includes essentially cardiovascular exercises aimed at providing better physical shape to practitioners.
The roots of fitness
Its origin actually comes from aerobics , a practice developed by Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper in the USA in the 1970s (Cooper aerobics)
His books on the subject ( Aerobics in 1968 and especially The New Aerobics in 1978) were worldwide bestsellers.
He was one of the pioneers who demonstrated the benefits of physical exercises , especially during his career in a military laboratory. He is considered the father of aerobics .
For the record, it was also he who created the Cooper test. Yes, yes, you know that famous fitness test you did at school which consists of measuring the distance traveled in 12 minutes of running. In addition, the 10,00 steps per day, does that mean anything to you? Well, that stems directly from the work of this doctor and his methodology.
In fact, fitness now encompasses several cardiovascular and/or muscular practices : step, bicycle, abs-glutes, rhythmic exercises with light weights, etc.
This is why it is practiced mainly in the gym, especially for group lessons. It is often reduced to these group lessons. But we can also put in this family of fitness, aquagym or brisk walking. Bodybuilding in the sense of mass gain is therefore not part of this family.
Eventually, it became a fairly generic term.
Nevertheless, the basis of fitness training is the development of the cardiovascular system for fitness and the maintenance of good health. Another point often forgotten, especially in group lessons: fitness is supposed to be a rather gentle method!
It can also be associated with a more global lifestyle including a healthy diet , without tobacco and alcohol.
Le circuit training
Perhaps less known, but commonly practiced especially at school, this method mainly works on strength and endurance . In addition, the coordination of movements and flexibility are also at stake.
The origins of circuit training
It is older than fitness! Originally, it was RE Morgan and GT Adamson of the University of Leads in England, two professors in the department of physical education , who proposed this method in the late 1950s in order to improve the physical condition of athletes. The first edition of their Circuit training book dates from 1957.
The initial objective was therefore not necessarily the fitness of beginners , but the increase in power and muscle volume while increasing breathing capacity . Nevertheless, this research program was part of a physical education approach for the whole population.